Bertrand Arthur William Russell was born at Trelleck on 18th May, 1872. He was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian and social critics. He obtained the Nobel Prize in Literature 1950. His parents were Viscount Amberley and Katherine, daughter of 2nd Baron Stanley of Alderley. At the age of three he was left an orphan. His father had wished him to be brought up as an agnostic; to avoid this he was made a ward of Court, and brought up by his grandmother. Instead of being sent to school he was taught by governesses and tutors, and thus acquired a perfect knowledge of French and German. In 1890 he went into residence at Trinity College, Cambridge, and after being a very high Wrangler and obtaining a First Class with distinction in philosophy he was elected a fellow of his college in 1895. But he had already left Cambridge in the summer of 1894 and for some months was attaché at the British embassy at Paris. (Copyright@The Nobel Foundation 1950). Introduction of Bertrand Russell: The following problems require reasoning for their solution. To prove than an answer is correct, once it is achieved, requires an argument whose premisses are contained in the statement of the problem, and whose conclusion is the answer to it. If the answer is correct, a valid argument can be constructed. In working at these problems, the reader is urged to concern himself not merely with discovering the answers, but also with formulating arguments to prove those answers correct. (Excerpt from Russell, Sceptical Essays.)
Exercise No. 1On a certain train, the crew consists of three men, the brakeman, the fireman, and the engineer. Their names listed alphabetically are Jones, Robinson, and Smith. On the train are also three passengers with corresponding names, Mr. Jones, Mr. Robinson, and Mr. Smith. The following facts are known:
What was the engineer's name?
- Mr. Robinson lives in Detroit.
- The brakeman lives halfway between Detroit and Chicago.
- Mr. Jones earns exactly $20,000 a year.
- Smith once beat the fireman at billiards.
- The brakeman's next-door neighbor, one of the three passengers mentioned, earns exactly three times as much as much as the brakeman.
- The passenger living in Chicago has the same name as the brakeman.
By process of elimination, I deducted that:
Answer: Mr. Jones is the engineer.
- Smith is not he fireman since he once beat the fireman at billiards.
- Mr. Robinson lives in Detroit so the other Robinson cannot be the brakeman since the person who as the same name lives in Chicago.
- Mr. Jones earns $20,000, which is three times as much as his neighbor, the brakeman.
- Since Robinson is not the brakeman and Smith is not the fireman but Jones cannot be the neighbor of Mr. Jones if he were the brakeman, Smith must be the brakeman living in Chicago.